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DataBase of Tunicate Gene Regulation
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Gene product: Msx
Organism: C. intestinalis
Summary of experimentsThree TSS where identified 111 (+1), 110 and 108 bp upstream of the translation start codon.

A CATAA box was also identified at -35.

The following region were found:
From -2558 to -831: required for expression in the ventral epidermis.
From -469 to -240: required for expression in the pharynx.
From -239 to +227: required for expression in the neural territories.
From -217 to -97: required for expression in the sensory vesicles, the neck and the visceral ganglion.

The first intron does not drive expression alone, but is necessary to enhance the activity of the regulatory elements.

The region from -199 to -170 is bound by protein extracts of neurulae or larvae.
Mutations of the ACT between -181 and -179 on the - strand to GTC result in a loss of binding in vitro and of activity in vitro.
This critical region contains binding sites for TCF11, USF and AP-1.
Activity reported

An unknown factor regulates Ci-msxb in ventral epdiermis, mesenchyme, muscle, endodermal strand, pigment cells, sensory vesicles, neck, visceral ganglion, central nervous system, pharynx, stomodaeum, neural gland in C. intestinalis (6, 22)
Sequences available
ID Gene Description Organism Dataset Dataset ID
s00295 Ci-msxb -3000:+200 region of ci0100152602 C. intestinalis JGI 1 ci0100152602
s00296 Ci-msxb -3000:+200 region of ci0200238273 C. intestinalis JGI 2 ci0200238273
s00297 Ci-msxb -3000:+200 region of ENSCING00000009129 C. intestinalis JGI 2 ENSCING00000009129
  1. Kusakabe T. (2005). "Decoding cis-regulatory systems in Ascidians." Zoolog Sci 22:129-146. (PUBMED)
  2. Russo, M.T., Donizetti, A., Locascio, A. D'Aniello, S., Amoroso, A., Aniello, F., Fucci, L., Branno, M. (2004). "Regulatory elements controlling Ci-msxb tissue-specific expression during Ciona intestinalis embryonic development." Dev Biol 267:517-528. (PUBMED)